continuous integration

Authenticode Signing Service and Client

September 12, 2016 Coding 1 comment , , , , ,

Authenticode Signing Service and Client

Last night I published a new project on GitHub to make it easier to integrate Authenticode signing into a CI process by providing a secured API for submitting artifacts to be signed by a code signing cert held on the server. It uses Azure AD with two application entries for security:

  1. One registration for the service itself
  2. One registration to represent each code signing client you want to allow

Azure AD was chosen as it makes it easy to restrict access to a single application/user in a secure way. Azure App Services also provide a secure location to store certificates, so the combination works well.

The service currently supports either individual files, or a zip archive that contains supported files to sign (works well for NuGet packages). The service code is easy to extend if additional filters or functionality is required.

Supported File Types

  • .msi, .msp, .msm, .cab, .dll, .exe, .sys, .vxd and Any PE file (via SignTool)
  • .ps1 and .psm1 via Set-AuthenticodeSignature


You will need an Azure AD tenant. These are free if you don’t already have one. In the “old” Azure Portal, you’ll need to
create two application entries: one for the server and one for your client.

Azure AD Configuration


Create a new application entry for a web/api application. Use whatever you want for the sign-on URI and App ID Uri (but remember what you use for the App ID Uri as you’ll need it later). On the application properties, edit the manifest to add an application role.

In the appRoles element, add something like the following:

  "allowedMemberTypes": [
  "displayName": "Code Sign App",
  "id": "<insert guid here>",
  "isEnabled": true,
  "description": "Application that can sign code",
  "value": "application_access"

After updating the manifest, you’ll likely want to edit the application configuration to enable “user assignment.” This means that only assigned users and applications can get an access token to/for this service. Otherwise, anyone who can authenticate in your directory can call the service.


Create a new application entry to represent your client application. The client will use the “client credentials” flow to login to Azure AD
and access the service as itself. For the application type, also choose “web/api” and use anything you want for the app id and sign in url.

Under application access, click “Add application” and browse for your service (you might need to hit the circled check to show all). Choose your service app and select the application permission.

Finally, create a new client secret and save the value for later (along with the client id of your app).

Server Configuration

Create a new App Service on Azure (I used a B1 for this as it’s not high-load). Build/deploy the service however you see fit. I used VSTS connected to this GitHub repo along with a Release Management build to auto-deploy to my site.

In the Azure App Service, in the certificates area, upload your code signing certificate and take note of the thumbprint id. In the Azure App Service, go to the settings section and add the following setting entries:

CertificateInfo:Thumbprintthumbprint of your certThumbprint of the cert to sign with
CertificateInfo:TimeStampUrlurl of timestamp server
WEBSITE_LOAD_CERTIFICATESthumbprint of your certThis exposes the cert’s private key to your app in the user store
Authentication:AzureAd:AudienceApp ID URI of your service from the application entry
Authentication:AzureAd:ClientIdclient id of your service app from the application entry
Authentication:AzureAd:TenantIdAzure AD tenant IDeither the guid or the name like

Enable “always on” if you’d like and disable PHP then save changes. Your service should now be configured.

Client Configuration

The client is distributed via NuGet and uses both a json config file and command line parameters. Common settings, like the client id and service url are stored in a config file, while per-file parameters and the client secret are passed in on the command line.

You’ll need to create an appsettings.json similar to the following:

  "SignClient": {
    "AzureAd": {
      "AADInstance": "",
      "ClientId": "<client id of your client app entry>",
      "TenantId": "<guid or domain name>"
    "Service": {
      "Url": "https://<your-service>",
      "ResourceId": "<app id uri of your service>"

Then, somewhere in your build, you’ll need to call the client tool. I use AppVeyor and have the following in my yml:

    secure: <the encrypted client secret using the appveyor secret encryption tool>

  - cmd: appveyor DownloadFile
  - cmd: nuget install SignClient -Version 0.5.0-beta3 -SolutionDir %APPVEYOR_BUILD_FOLDER% -Verbosity quiet -ExcludeVersion -pre


  - cmd: nuget pack nuget\Zeroconf.nuspec -version "%GitVersion_NuGetVersion%-bld%GitVersion_BuildMetaDataPadded%" -prop "target=%CONFIGURATION%" -NoPackageAnalysis
  - ps: '.\SignClient\SignPackage.ps1'
  - cmd: appveyor PushArtifact "Zeroconf.%GitVersion_NuGetVersion%-bld%GitVersion_BuildMetaDataPadded%.nupkg"  

SignPackage.ps1 looks like this:

$currentDirectory = split-path $MyInvocation.MyCommand.Definition

# See if we have the ClientSecret available
    Write-Host "Client Secret not found, not signing packages"

# Setup Variables we need to pass into the sign client tool

$appSettings = "$currentDirectory\appsettings.json"

$appPath = "$currentDirectory\..\packages\SignClient\tools\SignClient.dll"

$nupgks = ls $currentDirectory\..\*.nupkg | Select -ExpandProperty FullName

foreach ($nupkg in $nupgks){
    Write-Host "Submitting $nupkg for signing"

    dotnet $appPath 'zip' -c $appSettings -i $nupkg -s $env:SignClientSecret -n 'Zeroconf' -d 'Zeroconf' -u '' 

    Write-Host "Finished signing $nupkg"

Write-Host "Sign-package complete"

The parameters to the signing client are as follows. There are two modes, file for a single file and zip for a zip-type archive:

usage: SignClient <command> [<args>]

    file    Single file
    zip     Zip-type file (NuGet, etc)

File mode:

usage: SignClient file [-c <arg>] [-i <arg>] [-o <arg>] [-h <arg>]
                  [-s <arg>] [-n <arg>] [-d <arg>] [-u <arg>]

    -c, --config <arg>            Full path to config json file
    -i, --input <arg>             Full path to input file
    -o, --output <arg>            Full path to output file. May be same
                                  as input to overwrite. Defaults to
                                  input file if ommited
    -h, --hashmode <arg>          Hash mode: either dual or Sha256.
                                  Default is dual, to sign with both
                                  Sha-1 and Sha-256 for files that
                                  support it. For files that don't
                                  support dual, Sha-256 is used
    -s, --secret <arg>            Client Secret
    -n, --name <arg>              Name of project for tracking
    -d, --description <arg>       Description
    -u, --descriptionUrl <arg>    Description Url

Zip-type archive mode, including NuGet:

usage: SignClient zip [-c <arg>] [-i <arg>] [-o <arg>] [-h <arg>]
                  [-f <arg>] [-s <arg>] [-n <arg>] [-d <arg>] [-u <arg>]

    -c, --config <arg>            Full path to config json file
    -i, --input <arg>             Full path to input file
    -o, --output <arg>            Full path to output file. May be same
                                  as input to overwrite
    -h, --hashmode <arg>          Hash mode: either dual or Sha256.
                                  Default is dual, to sign with both
                                  Sha-1 and Sha-256 for files that
                                  support it. For files that don't
                                  support dual, Sha-256 is used
    -f, --filter <arg>            Full path to file containing paths of
                                  files to sign within an archive
    -s, --secret <arg>            Client Secret
    -n, --name <arg>              Name of project for tracking
    -d, --description <arg>       Description
    -u, --descriptionUrl <arg>    Description Url


I’m very much open to any collaboration and contributions to this tool to enable additional scenarios. Pull requests are welcome, though please open an issue to discuss first. Security reviews are also much appreciated!

Enabling source code debugging for your NuGet packages with GitLink

September 23, 2015 Coding 3 comments , , , ,

Enabling source code debugging for your NuGet packages with GitLink

Recently on Twitter, someone was complaining that their CI builds were failing due to either being down or rejecting their packages. Fortunately, there’s a better way than using SymbolSource if you’re using a public Git repo (like GitHub) to host your project — GitLink.

Symbols, SymbolSource and NuGet

Hopefully by now, most of you know that you need to create symbols (PDB’s) for your release libraries in addition to your debug builds. Having symbols helps your users troubleshoot issues that may crop up when they’re using your library. Without symbols, you need to rely on hacks, like using dotPeek as a Symbol Server. It’s a hack because the generated source code usually doesn’t match the original, and it certainly doesn’t include any helpful comments (you do comment your code, right?)

So you’ve updated your project build properties to create symbols for release, now you need someplace to put them so your users can get them. Up until recently, the easiest way has been to publish them on SymbolSource. You’d include the pdb files in your NuGet NuSpec, and then run nuget pack MyLibrary.nuspec -symbols. NuGet then creates two packages, one with your library and one just with the symbols. If you then run nuget push MyLibrary.1.0.0.nupkg, if there’s also a symbols package alongside, NuGet will push that to SymbolSource instead of If you’re lucky, things will just work. However, sometimes SymbolSource doesn’t like your PDB’s and your push will fail.

The issues

While SymbolSource is a great tool, there are some shortcomings.
* It requires manual configuration by the library consumer
* They have to know to go to VS and add the SymbolSource URL to the symbol search path
* It slows down your debugging experience. VS will by default check every configured Symbol Server for matching PDB’s. That leads many people to either disable symbol loading entirely or selectively load symbols. Even if you selectively load symbols, the load is still slow as VS has know way to know which Symbol Server a PDB might be on and must check all of them.
* Doesn’t enable Source Code debugging. PDB’s can be indexed to map original source code file metadata into them (the file location, not contents). If you’ve source-indexed your PDB’s and the user has source server support enabled, VS will automatically download the matching source code. This is great for OSS projects with their code on GitHub.

GitLink to the Rescue

GitLink provides us an elegant solution. When GitLink is run after your build step, it detects the current commit (assuming the sln is in a git repo clone), detects the provider (BitBucket and GitHub are currently supported) and indexes the PDB’s to point to the exact source location online. Of course, there are options to specify commits, remote repo location URLs, etc if you need to override the defaults.

After running GitLink, just include the PDB files in your nuspec/main nupkg alongside your dll files and you’re done. Upload that whole package to NuGet (and don’t use the -symbols parameter with nuget pack). This also means that users don’t need to configure a symbol server as the source-indexed PDB’s will be alongside the dll — the location VS will auto-load them from.

An example

Over at xUnit and xUnit for Devices, we’ve implemented GitLink as part of our builds. xUnit builds are setup to run msbuild on an “outer” .msbuild project with high-level tasks; we have a GitLink task that runs after our main build task.

As we want the build to be fully automated and not rely on exe’s external to the project, we “install” the GitLink NuGet package on build if necessary.

Here’s the gist of our main CI target that we call on build msbuild xunit.msbuild /t:CI (abbreviated for clarity):

  <SolutionName Condition="'$(SolutionName)' == ''">xunit.vs2015.sln</SolutionName>
  <SolutionDir Condition="'$(SolutionDir)' == '' Or '$(SolutionDir)' == '*Undefined*'">$(MSBuildProjectDirectory)</SolutionDir>
  <NuGetExePath Condition="'$(NuGetExePath)' == ''">$(SolutionDir)\.nuget\nuget.exe</NuGetExePath>

<Target Name="CI" DependsOnTargets="Clean;PackageRestore;GitLink;Build;Packages" />

<Target Name="PackageRestore" DependsOnTargets="_DownloadNuGet">
  <Message Text="Restoring NuGet packages..." Importance="High" />
  <Exec Command="&quot;$(NuGetExePath)&quot; install gitlink -SolutionDir &quot;$(SolutionDir)&quot; -Verbosity quiet -ExcludeVersion -pre" Condition="!Exists('$(SolutionDir)\packages\gitlink\')" />
  <Exec Command="&quot;$(NuGetExePath)&quot; restore &quot;$(SolutionDir)\$(SolutionName)&quot; -NonInteractive -Source @(PackageSource) -Verbosity quiet" />

<Target Name='GitLink'>
  <Exec Command='packages\gitlink\lib\net45\GitLink.exe $(MSBuildThisFileDirectory) -f $(SolutionName) -u' IgnoreExitCode='true' />

<Target Name='Packages'>
  <Exec Command='"$(NuGetExePath)" pack %(NuspecFiles.Identity) -NoPackageAnalysis -NonInteractive -Verbosity quiet' />

There are a few things to note from the snippet:
* When installing GitLink, I use the -ExcludeVersion switch. This is so it’s easier to call later in the script w/o remembering to update a target path each time.
* I’m currently using -pre as well. There’s a number of bugs fixed since the last stable release.

The end result

If you use xUnit 2.0+ or xUnit for Devices and have source server support enabled in your VS debug settings, VS will let you step into xUnit code seamlessly.

If you do this for your library, your users will thank you.